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# Types of statistical tests

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## How do I know which statistical test to use?

For a statistical test to be valid, your sample size needs to be large enough to approximate the true distribution of the population being studied. To determine which statistical test to use, you need to know: whether your data meets certain assumptions. the types of variables that you’re dealing with.

## What is Z test and t test?

Z Test is the statistical hypothesis which is used in order to determine that whether the two samples means calculated are different in case the standard deviation is available and sample is large whereas the T test is used in order to determine a how averages of different data sets differs from each other in case

## What is the R test in statistics?

It is a parametric test used to test if the mean of a sample from a normal distribution could reasonably be a specific value.

## What does t test tell you?

The t test tells you how significant the differences between groups are; In other words it lets you know if those differences (measured in means) could have happened by chance. A t test can tell you by comparing the means of the two groups and letting you know the probability of those results happening by chance.

## What is R and P in correlation?

Pearson’s correlation coefficient r with P-value. The Pearson correlation coefficient is a number between -1 and 1. The P-value is the probability that you would have found the current result if the correlation coefficient were in fact zero (null hypothesis).

## Does P-value show correlation?

The pvalue tells you whether the correlation coefficient is significantly different from 0. (A coefficient of 0 indicates that there is no linear relationship.) If the pvalue is less than or equal to the significance level, then you can conclude that the correlation is different from 0.

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## What is P and R value?

R squared is about explanatory power; the pvalue is the “probability” attached to the likelihood of getting your data results (or those more extreme) for the model you have. It is attached to the F statistic that tests the overall explanatory power for a model based on that data (or data more extreme).

## What is a good R value statistics?

It ranges from -1.0 to +1.0. The closer r is to +1 or -1, the more closely the two variables are related. If r is close to 0, it means there is no relationship between the variables. If r is positive, it means that as one variable gets larger the other gets larger.

## What does R 2 tell you?

R-squared (R2) is a statistical measure that represents the proportion of the variance for a dependent variable that’s explained by an independent variable or variables in a regression model.

## Is 0.2 A strong correlation?

There is no rule for determining what size of correlation is considered strong, moderate or weak. For this kind of data, we generally consider correlations above 0.4 to be relatively strong; correlations between 0.2 and 0.4 are moderate, and those below 0.2 are considered weak.

## Which correlation is the weakest among 4?

The weakest linear relationship is indicated by a correlation coefficient equal to 0. A positive correlation means that if one variable gets bigger, the other variable tends to get bigger. A negative correlation means that if one variable gets bigger, the other variable tends to get smaller.

## What does a correlation of 0.75 mean?

r values ranging from 0.50 to 0.75 or -0.50 to –0.75 indicate moderate to good correlation, and r values from 0.75 to 1 or from –0.75 to -1 point to very good to excellent correlation between the variables (1).

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## What does a correlation of 0.9 mean?

The sample correlation coefficient, denoted r, For example, a correlation of r = 0.9 suggests a strong, positive association between two variables, whereas a correlation of r = -0.2 suggest a weak, negative association.

## How do you read a correlation chart?

How to Read a Correlation Matrix

1. -1 indicates a perfectly negative linear correlation between two variables.
2. 0 indicates no linear correlation between two variables.
3. 1 indicates a perfectly positive linear correlation between two variables.

## How do you know if a correlation is strong or weak?

The Correlation Coefficient

When the r value is closer to +1 or -1, it indicates that there is a stronger linear relationship between the two variables. A correlation of -0.97 is a strong negative correlation while a correlation of 0.10 would be a weak positive correlation.

## What are the 2 variables in a regression analysis?

In regression analysis, the dependent variable is denoted Y and the independent variable is denoted X.

## What is used to show the relationship between two variables?

The most useful graph for displaying the relationship between two quantitative variables is a scatterplot. Many research projects are correlational studies because they investigate the relationships that may exist between variables.

## What are regressions in statistics?

Regression is a statistical method used in finance, investing, and other disciplines that attempts to determine the strength and character of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other variables (known as independent variables).

## How do you analyze regression results?

The sign of a regression coefficient tells you whether there is a positive or negative correlation between each independent variable and the dependent variable. A positive coefficient indicates that as the value of the independent variable increases, the mean of the dependent variable also tends to increase.

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## How do you interpret statistical results?

Interpret the key results for Descriptive Statistics

1. Step 1: Describe the size of your sample.
2. Step 2: Describe the center of your data.
4. Step 4: Assess the shape and spread of your data distribution.
5. Compare data from different groups.

## What is Homoscedasticity in statistics?

Definition. In statistics, homoscedasticity occurs when the variance in scores on one variable is somewhat similar at all the values of the other variable.

## How do you determine which variables are statistically significant?

If the computed t-score equals or exceeds the value of t indicated in the table, then the researcher can conclude that there is a statistically significant probability that the relationship between the two variables exists and is not due to chance, and reject the null hypothesis.

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# Characteristics of top down approach

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## What are characteristics of top down analysis?

The topdown approach to investing focuses on the big picture, or how the overall economy and macroeconomic factors drive the markets and, ultimately, stock prices. They will also look at the performance of sectors or industries.

## What are the characteristics of top down development strategies?

The topdown approach relies on higher authority figures to determine larger goals that will filter down to the tasks of lower level employees. In comparison, the bottom-up style of communication features a decision-making process that gives the entire staff a voice in company goals.

## What is the meaning of top down approach?

A “topdownapproach is where an executive decision maker or other top person makes the decisions of how something should be done. This approach is disseminated under their authority to lower levels in the hierarchy, who are, to a greater or lesser extent, bound by them.

## What is an advantage of top down design?

The advantage of this approach is that decisions can be made and implemented very quickly. This is particularly important when time is limited. The other benefit of topdown project planning is that it helps align the project goals with the organization’s strategic goals as upper management is giving the directions.

## What are the main components of a top down design?

In topdown design, a system’s overview is designed, specifying, yet not detailing any first-level subsystems. Then, every subsystem is refined in greater detail, for example, sometimes dividing into many different levels of subsystem, so that the whole specification is decomposed to basic elements.

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## What is a major drawback of the top down approach?

Disadvantages of the topdown approach include: Low participation (this is likely to influence the implementation of the plans in a negative way). Requires a lot of knowledge at the top level. Does not use specialized knowledge which may be present in the lower echelons of the organization.

## What is an example of top down processing?

Topdown processing refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition. For example, understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meaning of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding.

## What is the difference between top down and bottom-up approach?

While the topdown approach focuses on breaking down a big problem into smaller and understandable chunks, the bottomup approach first focuses on solving the smaller problems at the fundamental level and then integrating them into a whole and complete solution.

## What are the similarities of top down approach and bottom-up approach?

Although these two models represent two opposing strategies, they share similarities in the way a company identifies its key objectives. At a very basic level, the topdown approach attempts to move from the general to the specific, while the bottomup approach finds its way from the specific to the general.

## Is C top down approach?

why c is called as the top down approach? C programming uses top down approach to solve a problem. Top down approach starts with high-level design and ends with the low-level implementation.

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## What is top down listening strategy?

TopDown Listening Strategies Refers to the use of background knowledge in understanding the meaning of the message. Background knowledge Consists of context, the situation and topic, and co-text(what came before and after).

## What are different types of listening?

Familiarize yourself with these different types of listening so you can strengthen and improve your ability to critically think and evaluate what you have heard.

• Appreciative Listening. When you listen for appreciation you are listening for enjoyment.
• Empathic Listening.
• Comprehensive Listening.
• Critical Listening.

## What are the purpose of listening?

Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication. Without the ability to listen effectively, messages are easily misunderstood.

## What are the four purpose of listening?

The four purposes of listening are listening for appreciation, listening for comprehension, listening to show support, and critical listening.

## What are the 5 listening skills?

There are five key techniques you can use to develop your active listening skills:

• Pay attention.
• Show that you’re listening.
• Provide feedback.
• Defer judgment.
• Respond appropriately.

## What are the two main purpose of listening?

Clarity. Listen to help others find clarity. Provide opportunity for people to hear their own voice. Those who hear their own voice learn what they really think.

## What are the factors to consider when you listen?

All The Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

• Knowledge of how sounds merge or get reduced.
• Visual support.
• Vocabulary size.
• Concentration.
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## What is the importance of effective listening?

Research has found that by listening effectively, you will get more information from the people you manage, you will increase others’ trust in you, you will reduce conflict, you will better understand how to motivate others, and you will inspire a higher level of commitment in the people you manage.

## What are the components of effective listening skills?

The listening process involves four stages: receiving, understanding, evaluating, and responding.

## What are the four learning skills?

What are learning skills? The 21st century learning skills are often called the 4 C’s: critical thinking, creative thinking, communicating, and collaborating. These skills help students learn, and so they are vital to success in school and beyond.

## What are four skills of communication?

Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are basic communication skills necessary for effective communication in any environment, particularly the workplace.

# How to preserve coriander leaves for one year

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### How do you preserve fresh coriander?

Fill a jar or a water glass partially with water and place the stem ends of the herbs into the water in the jar. Cover and store: If you are storing the herbs in the refrigerator, cover loosely with a plastic bag. Cilantro loves cool temperatures and should be stored in the refrigerator.

### How do you freeze fresh coriander leaves?

Method 1: Freeze Cilantro Leaves in a Bag

Remove the leaves from the stems and add the cilantro leaves to the inner bag. Push out as much air from the bags as possible and seal tightly. Stick the bag in the freezer and simply pop off the leaves as you want to use them.

### Can I dry coriander leaves?

To dry, preheat oven to 250-300 degrees F. Lightly coat a cookie sheet with baking spray to help with sticking. Strip the leaves off the stems of the cilantro, and spread the leaves in one layer on the cookie sheet. Let the leaves dry out in the oven for 20-30 minutes, check once.

### How do you keep coriander leaves dry?

Dip the coriander leaves in the turmeric water and keep them for about 30 minutes. Wash and allow them to dry properly. To ensure the leaves have dried properly, dab them with a paper towel. Once the coriander leaves are dried, take another container and cover it with a paper towel and add the leaves into it.

### How do you dry and preserve coriander leaves?

De-stalk and wash leaves.

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Spread on a towel and leave for a few hours or overnight to dry off the water, because water makes the leaves rot faster. Wrap them in a paper towel and store in an airtight box or in a sealed plastic bag in the vegetable tray of the fridge.

### What can I substitute for dried coriander?

Summary The best substitutes for coriander seeds include cumin, garam masala, curry powder and caraway.

### What can I use coriander leaves for?

stirring Coriander Leaf, Parsley, fresh green chillies, Garlic and onion into cooked rice to make Mexican arroz verde. adding Coriander Leaf to breads, stuffings and sauces and sprinkle over spicy or creamy dishes at the end of cooking.

### Can you dry coriander leaves in microwave?

Lay coriander leaves on a microwave safe tray. Microwave them on high powder for 2 minutes. Check them every 60 seconds to make sure that they don’t get burned. Now put dried leaves into a mixing jar (small) and run for 60 seconds (you can crush leaves by hands as well).

### Can I dry basil in the microwave?

Microwave on High in three bursts: Place the basil leaves on a plate between two towels. Cook for 45 seconds, then 30 seconds, then 30 seconds again. The basil leaves should look shriveled and be mostly dry. All microwaves are different, so do a few more 10 second bursts as necessary to dry it out.

### What is the best way to dry basil?

Dry: Set your oven to the lowest temperature. Place the basil leaves on a parchment-lined baking sheet, then place it on the upper rack of the oven. Bake for 2-4 hours, until the leaves are crumbly. Crumble & store: Remove the basil from the oven and cool.

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### How do you dry and preserve basil?

Remove basil leaves from the stem, wash, and pat dry with a paper towel. Set your oven to the lowest temperature and place the basil leaves in a single layer on a baking sheet. Bake the leaves for 2-4 hours until they’re completely dried out and crumbly.

### Can I dry basil leaves?

Hang the drying basil in a dimly lit to dark room with low humidity and warm temperatures. The bag will catch dry bits of the leaves as they fall off. You can also dry basil in a food dehydrator. Lay each leaf in a single layer on the racks and allow them to dry in the machine until completely crisp.

### What can I do with lots of basil?

How to Use Basil

1. Top whole leaves onto pizza.
2. Finish pasta with whole or thinly sliced leaves.
3. Blend it into sauces.
4. Puree it into soups.
6. Use it to garnish avocado toast.
7. Turn it into an ice cream topping! Jazz up vanilla ice cream with fresh strawberries, basil, and a balsamic reduction.

### Can you dry basil in the sun?

Dried basil, like most of other herbs and spices, is best preserved by storing them in small airtight containers away from the light. There are several methods of drying basil: air drying, sun drying or using the oven, microwave or food dehydrators.

### How do I preserve basil?

Simply harvest the fresh basil, wash the leaves, allow them to dry, and then slice the tender leaves into thin ribbons before adding them to an ice cube tray with enough olive oil to cover. Freeze the tiny cubes of oil solid before turning them out and transferring them to a freezer bag for long term storage.

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### Do you wash basil before drying?

Wash basil by gently swishing in a bowl of running water. It’s very important to remove surface moisture from basil before you hang or bag it to dry. If you do not, you risk getting mold or brown water spots on your leaves – and you really don’t want that! In other words, dry your basil before you dry it!

### Can you dry herbs in the sun?

Use the sun’s heat to dry herbs, but don’t expose herbs to too much direct sunlight as this could cause them to bleach. Solar drying can be as low-tech as placing drying screens outside until your herbs are brittle (bring them in at night).

# Difference between slavery in africa and america

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## How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in Africa?

Forms of slavery varied both in Africa and in the New World. In general, slavery in Africa was not heritable—that is, the children of slaves were free—while in the Americas, children of slave mothers were considered born into slavery.

## What is the difference between slavery in Africa and Atlantic Slavery?

While the transatlantic slave trade mainly involved enslaving people from West Africa and forcing them to work on plantations in the Americas, modern slavery is more widespread in countries across the world, including the UK.

## Who first started slavery in Africa?

The transatlantic slave trade began during the 15th century when Portugal, and subsequently other European kingdoms, were finally able to expand overseas and reach Africa. The Portuguese first began to kidnap people from the west coast of Africa and to take those they enslaved back to Europe.

## Who caught the slaves in Africa?

It is thought that around 8.5 million enslaved Africans were taken to the Americas. British slave ships set off from Liverpool, Glasgow or Bristol, carrying trade goods and sailed to West Africa. Some of those enslaved were captured directly by the British traders.

## Where did most African slaves come from?

Volume of Transatlantic Slave Trade by Region of Embarkation (in thousands) 1519–1700. The majority of all people enslaved in the New World came from West Central Africa. Before 1519, all Africans carried into the Atlantic disembarked at Old World ports, mainly Europe and the offshore Atlantic islands.

## Which state had the most slaves?

New York had the greatest number, with just over 20,000. New Jersey had close to 12,000 slaves. Vermont was the first Northern region to abolish slavery when it became an independent republic in 1777.

## Which landlocked country has the most slaves?

There are more than 800,000 slaves in Niger — more than 7 percent of the population — and although some of their conditions have improved over the years, slavery remains a fact of life in this Saharan country.

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## Where in Africa is the Door of No Return?

The House of Slaves (Maison des Esclaves) and its Door of No Return is a museum and memorial to the Atlantic slave trade on Gorée Island, 3 km off the coast of the city of Dakar, Senegal.

## Are Jamaicans originally from Africa?

The vast majority of Jamaicans are of African descent, with minorities of Europeans, East Indians, Chinese, Middle Eastern and others or mixed ancestry.

## How many slaves walk through the door to nowhere annually?

By the 18th century, 30,000 slaves on their way to North and South America passed through Elmina’s Door of No Return each year. Today, Elmina’s economy is sustained by tourism and fishing. Elmina Castle is preserved as a Ghanaian national museum and monument and is designated as a World Heritage Monument under UNESCO.

## What is the point of no return in Africa?

The door was the point out of which many, perhaps millions, of African slaves took the final step from their home continent and onto the slave ships that would bring them to the new world, if they even survived the journey. Or that’s the story according to Goree Island official history, anyway.

## When did slavery end in Africa?

The final cessation of the export of slaves from Africa to the Americas took place toward the end of the 1860s. The decisive factor was the abolition of slavery in the United States in 1865.

## When did slavery in Ghana end?

British involvement with the slave trade did not end overnight with the 1807 abolition and a more stringent abolition law followed in 1833.

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## Where is the point of no return located?

Gberefu Island also known as Point of No Return is a populated historical island located in Badagry, a town and local government area of Lagos State, South-Western Nigeria.

## When was the Door of No Return built?

The first record of slave trading there dates back to 1536 and was conducted by Portuguese, the first Europeans to set foot on the Island in 1444. The house of slaves was built in 1776. Built by the Dutch, it is the last slave house still standing in Goree and now serves as a museum.

## Where was the departure point for slaves in Africa?

Goree Island is on the great western bulge of Africa – the nearest point on the continent to the Americas. The Senegalese people called it Ber. The Portuguese renamed it Ila de Palma.

## How many slaves were taken from Senegal?

So, Goree Island, located a few miles off the coast of Senegal in the Atlantic Ocean, was the place from which the Europeans and Americans organized the export of slaves to the former British colonies of North America, during the seventeenth and eighteenth, and even after of the official abolition of slavery in the

## Who were slaves in Canada?

They were house servants and farm workers. The number of Black slaves increased during British rule, especially with the arrival of United Empire Loyalists after 1783. The Maritimes saw 1,200 to 2,000 slaves arrive prior to abolition, with 300 accounted for in Lower Canada, and between 500 and 700 in Upper Canada.

## Where did the first slaves come from?

Of those Africans who arrived in the United States, nearly half came from two regions: Senegambia, the area comprising the Senegal and Gambia Rivers and the land between them, or today’s Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Mali; and west-central Africa, including what is now Angola, Congo, the Democratic Republic of

## Does Senegal have slavery?

Slavery in Senegal: forced child begging. One of the most prevalent forms of slavery in Senegal takes the form of forced child begging in Koranic schools. Across Senegal, boys known as ‘talibés’ are sent out to beg on the streets by their teachers at Koranic schools called ‘daaras’.

## Why is it called the Door of No Return?

“That’s why they say it’s the ‘Door of No Return,’ because they believed at that time that if they erased all these things from ourselves, that we’d never find our way back home,” Halevi said.

## What is the historical significance of Gorée Island?

Gorée is known as the location of the House of Slaves (French: Maison des esclaves), built by an Afro-French Métis family about 1780–1784. The House of Slaves is one of the oldest houses on the island. It is now used as a tourist destination to show the horrors of the slave trade throughout the Atlantic world.

## What are the islands off the coast of Senegal?

Cape Verde is an archipelago of ten islands and five islets located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean approximately 500 km from the coast of Senegal, West Africa (16° 00′ N, 24° 00′ W). These islands occur in two groups – the Barlayento, or windward islands in the north, and Sotavento, or leeward islands in the south.

## Are there volcanoes in Senegal?

Cap-Vert is a volcanic field in Senegal with a surface of 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi). The field covers the Cape Verde peninsula close to Dakar and was active until 600,000 years ago. It consists of a number of outcrops and two 100 metres (330 ft) high hills.