What is difference between PT and aPTT?
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are used to test for the same functions; however, in aPTT, an activator is added that speeds up the clotting time and results in a narrower reference range.
What does PT and aPTT test for?
The PTT assesses the amount and the function of certain proteins in the blood called coagulation or clotting factors The partial thromboplastin time (PTT; also known as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)) is a screening test that helps evaluate a person’s ability to appropriately form blood clots.
What is normal PT and PTT levels?
Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR (international normalized ratio). If you are not taking blood thinning medicines, such as warfarin, the normal range for your PT results is: 11 to 13.5 seconds. INR of 0.8 to 1.1.
What is the difference between PT and INR?
A prothrombin time (PT) is a test used to help detect and diagnose a bleeding disorder or excessive clotting disorder; the international normalized ratio (INR) is calculated from a PT result and is used to monitor how well the blood-thinning medication (anticoagulant) warfarin (Coumadin®) is working to prevent blood
What is a normal PTT value?
Normal PTT values can vary between laboratories but 25 to 35 seconds is considered normal.
What is PT INR test used for?
Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. A prothrombin time test can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check whether medicine to prevent blood clots is working. A PT test may also be called an INR test.
How is PT INR calculated?
The INR is derived from prothrombin time (PT) which is calculated as a ratio of the patient’s PT to a control PT standardized for the potency of the thromboplastin reagent developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the following formula: INR = Patient PT ÷ Control PT.
What is normal range of aPTT?
The reference range of the aPTT is 30-40 seconds. The reference range of the PTT is 60-70 seconds. In patients receiving anticoagulant therapy, the reference range is 1.5-2.5 times the control value in seconds.
What is a normal PT INR?
In healthy people an INR of 1.1 or below is considered normal. An INR range of 2.0 to 3.0 is generally an effective therapeutic range for people taking warfarin for disorders such as atrial fibrillation or a blood clot in the leg or lung.
What is normal blood thickness level?
It measures your blood thickness on a scale that is called an International Normalized Ratio (INR). Your INR should stay between 2.0 and 3.0, with 2.5 being ideal. If it’s less than 2.0, your blood is too thick and you have the risk of blood clots and stroke.
What does an INR of 1.5 mean?
A result of 1.0, up to 1.5, is therefore normal. A low INR result means your blood is ‘not thin enough’ or coagulates too easily and puts you at risk of developing a blood clot. A high INR result means your blood coagulates too slowly and you risk bleeding.
What does a high PT INR mean?
PT/INR too high– If a PT/INR test result is too high, it means that the persons’ blood is clotting too slowly, and is at risk of bleeding; their dose of warfarin is too high. On the other hand, if the PT/INR test result is too low, their dose of warfarin may not be enough to protect the blood from clotting.
What is a high Pt level?
A typical PT result is 10 to 14 seconds. Higher than that means your blood is taking longer than normal to clot and may be a sign of many conditions, including: Bleeding or clotting disorder. Lack of vitamin K. Lack of clotting factors.
Why is PTT high?
A prolonged PTT result may be due to: hemophilia A or B. deficiency of blood clotting factors. von Willebrand disease (a disorder that causes abnormal blood clotting)
What does it mean if aPTT is high?
A prolonged aPTT usually means that clotting is taking longer to occur than expected (but is associated with increased risk of blood clots if due to a lupus anticoagulant) and may be caused by a variety of factors (see the list below).
What is PT PTT test?
A partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test measures the time it takes for a blood clot to form. Normally, when you get a cut or injury that causes bleeding, proteins in your blood called coagulation factors work together to form a blood clot.
How to prepare a cake for fondant
Should you chill a cake before putting fondant on it?
In hot humid weather, fondant tends to melt with condensation. So, chill the cake well before you cover with fondant. That way you will have a nice firm cake to work with. And yet, once you cover the cake with fondant, DO NOT put it back in the fridge.
How do you fondant a cake for beginners?
How do you stick fondant to cake?
Can you put fondant straight onto cake?
If you‘ve always wondered how to cover a cake with fondant, you‘ve come to the right place! Perfect for giving you that nice, clean finish on your cake, fondant is an edible dough that can be used to cover cakes and make decorations.
What goes under fondant icing on a cake?
In addition to the fondant, you will need a cake that is covered with a layer of buttercream at least 1/4-inch thick. This frosting layer helps the fondant stick to the cake and smooths out any bumps or imperfections on the cake surface, so the fondant layer looks clean and smooth.
How long should you wait to put fondant on a cake?
Fondant can be made 1 day before, up to 5 weeks before cake is due. To store fondant, wrap well in plastic wrap, and place inside an airtight container. Keep at room temperature, away from sunlight.
Can you leave fondant cake out overnight?
You can store fondant cakes at room temperature for 3-4 days if you live in a cool and dry climate and if the filling inside the cake does not need refrigeration.
Can I decorate a cake 2 days in advance?
Cakes can be baked up to two days in advance, stored tightly wrapped with plastic wrap in the fridge or at room temperature. Cupcakes can be baked one day in advance and stored (frosted or unfrosted)s in an airtight container in the fridge or at room temperature.
Can I refrigerate a cake with fondant decorations?
Fondant cakes will wilt when removed from the refrigerator because condensation forms on the icing and weakens the fondant’s paste-like consistency. If you must store a fondant cake in the refrigerator, protect it from the cold air by wrapping with plastic wrap and placing the cake into an airtight container.
Can you put fondant decorations on a buttercream cake?
Fondant decorations add a professional and polished touch to cakes and cookies iced with buttercream icing. Press your fondant decoration, dampened side down, onto the icing. If the decoration is heavy or bulky, add decorative flourishes of fresh buttercream around the fondant decoration to help stabilize it.
Can you put fondant shapes on buttercream?
When working with fondant on fondant, if you‘re not very careful, water can drip or run down the side of your cake. The water dissolves the fondant and you‘ll end up with stripes. If you use a small brush and a very minimal amount of water, this can work well for putting fondant on buttercream.
Why does fondant melt in fridge?
If your fondant is sweating even before you’ve put it into the fridge, then you are probably working on a cold cake, which causes the icing sugar inside the fondant to have condensation happening which causes the sugar to melt.
Will fondant harden in the fridge?
Fondant does not dry in the refrigerator, it firms up. Once it comes to room temperature it will remain the same and will still need time to dry.
How do I stop my fondant cake from sweating?
Why is the icing on my cake sweating?
The icing will also sweat once brought out to room temperature and should be left to dry out naturally or helped with air from a fan. Invariably icing which has sweated dries out in shiny water marks. Keep the cake in the box when out at room temperature until moisture dries before handling.
Why does my fondant break when I put it on my cake?
Cracking typically occurs when the fondant has been rolled too thin. When you try to work with it on the cake the thin part will start to pull apart and tear. If the crack is large, you can mix a small amount (pea sized) of the same color fondant with a few drops of clear extract until you have a thinned mixture.
How do I stop condensation on my cake?
Why is my icing not sticking to the cake?
The room is too cold and the buttercream is clumpy ish also the cake is too wet you may have added simple syrup to it. make sure the cakes are cool and the buttercream is a little cold 68 degrees or so and then frost the cake.
How do you fix a badly decorated cake?
How do you make icing for a cake not crumble?
- How do you frost a cake like a pro?
- What is the easiest way to frost a cake?
Take about 1/2 cup of frosting and thin it out with a little milk or water so it’s very easy to spread. With an offset spatula, spread a thin layer of it on the tops and sides of the cake, then chill until set, about 15 minutes. Repeat if you can still see crumbs showing through the icing.
Types of charging cords
What are the different types of charging cables?
An Android cable is called a Micro-USB cable.
What is USB Type ABC?
Generally, the Type-B connector is the end of the standard USB cable that plugs into a peripheral device such as a printer, phone, or external hard drive, and is also known as the Type B-male. The port on the device itself is referred to as the Type B-female.
What is the difference between USB-A USB B and USB-C?
The USB–C is larger than the micro-B connector and like the typical USB wire, one end features a USB Type-A or Type–B while the other features the new Type–C end and will likely become the standard connection over time. Data transfer and power capability are basically twice what they were with USB 3.1.
What are the three types of phone chargers?
You can also buy adapters that will allow you to connect these USB cord types. There are even some cables that convert between all three popular types of USB cords. These cords include USB-C, micro-USB, and Lightning connectors.
What does USB Type C look like?
The USB–C connector looks similar to a micro USB connector at first glance, though it’s more oval in shape and slightly thicker to accommodate its best feature: flippability. Like Lightning and MagSafe, the USB–C connector has no up or down orientation.
How do I know what charger I need for my phone?
How to spot a fake phone charger
- Markings and Text on the plug. Look at the plug to see if there any CE markings (certification mark) which is the European Law for product safety standards.
- Plug pin finish. This is a more obvious sign of a fake plug.
- USB port.
- Check the weight.
- Check your voltage.
- The 3-point recommended safety check.
What Chargers do Galaxy phones use?
You can purchase replacement chargers directly from Samsung.com. Most phones and tablets use either a USB Type C or Micro USB charger. USB Type C is the newest type of USB charger. The design helps prevent damage occurring inside the USB port because it doesn’t matter which way you insert it into a phone or tablet.
What is a Type C charger?
USB–C is the emerging standard for charging and transferring data. USB–C features a new, smaller connector shape that’s reversible so it’s easier to plug in. USB–C cables can carry significantly more power, so they can be used to charge larger devices like laptops.
How do I know what voltage my charger is?
What amps is fast charge?
Standard chargers that come with iPhones and older Android phones carry 1 amp of current and put out 5 watts of power. New rapid chargers with technology such as Quick Charge support 2 amps and 12 watts or more, potentially charging your phone up to four times faster.
Is 10W fast charging?
Apple’s iPhones are designed to charge at a maximum speed of 7.5W, Samsung’s phones charge at 9W, and other Android phones support up to 10W. So while chargers that output less will charge your phone, they won’t do so quite as fast.
How many mA is fast charging?
Samsung phones only fast charge with the screen off, otherwise screen on they are limited to about 1000 mA.
How do I know if my charger is 18 watt?
For the first, it’s as simple as looking at the charger itself. This may have the wattage printed on it (as with Applechargers) but it might have output(s) quoted as volts and amps. For example, if it says the output is 5V at 3A, then it’s a 15W charger because Watts = Volts * Amps.
Is 5V 2.4 A fast charging?
Most phones and other devices are capable of handling 5V/2.4A. For fast charging, you’re looking at something that bumps the voltage up 5V, 9V, 12V, and beyond, or increases amperage to 3A and above. Keep in mind, your device will only take in as much power as its charging circuit is designed for.
Is 5V 2A fast charging?
Quick Charge 1.0 was introduced in 2012 and it made use of a 5V/2A charger, which could charge a phone up to 40% faster than conventional 5V, 1A chargers. That boost accounts for a 10W max charging power. Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0 was introduced later on in 2013 with the Snapdragon 800 chipsets.
Can I use a 5V 2A charger with a 9v 2A device?
Yes, it is absolutely safe to charge a device with a charger that has more current capacity than needed. Since the voltage is held constant (5V), the only factor that determines current draw is the load (another term for resistance) the device places on the charger.
Can I use a 5V 2A charger with a 5V 1A device?
chargers. A 1A device means that, for a power supply at a certain voltage (5V for USB), the device will “ask” for 1A from the power supply. However, the charger will only supply as much current as the device it’s powering is asking for. So, plugging a 1A device into a 2A charger will be fine.
How many watts is a 5V 2A charger?
The 5v 2A charger can only give 10 watts. However, the device (phone or whatever) must either be capable of working directly with 12v, or must support Quick Charge or USB Power delivery or some other method of signaling the charger to raise the voltage from the default of 5v to 9v or 12v.
Can I use 12v 2A for 5V 2A?
Assuming the wall adapter is rated at “5V 2A” and the device is rated at “5V 1.5A”, then — yes — this is perfectly OK.
Is 5V the same as 10W?
To obtain Watts you need both Amps and Volts:
For example, if you have a current of 2 A and a voltage of 5 V, the power is 2A * 5V = 10W.
How to spell narwhal
How do you spell narwhal in English?
What does the word narwal mean?
Definitions of narwal. noun. small Arctic whale the male having a long spiral ivory tusk. synonyms: Monodon monoceros, narwhal, narwhale.
Is a narwhal’s horn a tooth or a tusk?
1. What is a narwhal tusk? The narwhal tusk—most commonly found on males—is actually an enlarged tooth with sensory capability and up to 10 million nerve endings inside.
Is Narwhal a boy or a girl?
Male narwhals can reach a length of 5 meters (16 feet) and weigh up to 1,800 kg (4000 lbs). Females are slightly smaller, reaching a length of 4 meters (13 feet) and 1,000 kg (2200 lbs).
Are Narwhal dangerous?
Reputation: Narwhals are mythical creatures – unicorns of the sea. They are “toothed whales” so obviously have teeth in their mouths. They spear their food, and are as aggressive and dangerous as they look.
How is a narwhal born?
They give birth during the months of summer and early fall. At birth, Narwhal calves are approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) and weigh about 2,200 lb (1,000 kg). Calves are born without their tusk, which starts growing after birth. Like many other whales, Narwhals travel in groups, or pods.
What do you call a baby narwhal?
Narwhals have just one baby (called a calf) every three years. They will stay with their mother and nurse for over a year before they grow more independent and learn to hunt on their own with the pod.
What does Narwhal taste like?
The taste of Muktuk (which is the Inuit word for the fat-layer of the Narwhal – widely considered their greatest delicacy) is pretty mild actually. It’s tough and chewy and a little like what I’d imagine eating a melon rind would taste like.
Why is the narwhal special?
Nicknamed the “unicorn of the sea” and long shrouded in mystery, the narwhal is famous for its long ivory tusk, which spirals counterclockwise and can reach up to nine feet (2.5 meters) in length. Males predominantly have a tusk, and some have two.
Are narwhals extinct 2020?
While it is not endangered, the narwhal is considered “near threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, or IUCN, which gauges a species’ risk of extinction.
Is a narwhal a fish or a mammal?
In the frigid Arctic Ocean, a mysterious toothed whale—the narwhal— resides among the ice floes. Although some evidence suggests it’s the source of fantastical tales about unicorns, the narwhal is, in fact, a living, breathing mammal. There are roughly 172,000 of them swimming in the ocean today.
What is the lifespan of a narwhal?
Narwhal live up to 50 years
The average lifespan of the narwhal is 30-40 years but many have reportedly lived beyond that, up to 50 years old!
What eats the narwhal?
Killer whales and polar bears have been known to attack and eat Narwhals, and at least one Greenland shark has been captured with narwhal remains in its stomach, but it remains unclear if it hunted or scavenged that meal.
Where do narwhals sleep?
Narwhals mostly spend their time at depths between zero and 50 meters. Narwhals sleep in small bodies of waters in between the ice with their tusking (group).
How old is the oldest narwhal?
The oldest narwhal female was close to 115 years old. Photo coutesy of Eva Garde. The age distribution of the narwhals sampled. The oldest narwhal female was close to 115 years old.
Do narwhals exist?
The narwhal or narwhale (Monodon monoceros) is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large “tusk” from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the Arctic waters around Greenland, Canada, and Russia. It is one of two living species of whale in the family Monodontidae, along with the beluga whale.
Do narwhals have eyes?
Instead of perceiving obstacles like we do with our eyes, narwhals produce clicking sounds, and listen to the echoes to form a reconstruction of their surroundings based on how those sound waves bounce off nearby prey or rock formations. Their echoes are then detected by fleshy pads in the narwhals‘ lower jaws.
Do unicorns live?
Unicorns, and indeed most mythical beasts, are very long-lived creatures. They can live for centuries. Their magic keeps them alive and healthy for many, many years, and time passes in a different way for them. The days seem to go more slowly because they are such swift creatures.
Where can you see a narwhal?
HABITAT Narwhal stick to Arctic waters; most commonly seen in Arctic Canada, but they can also be seen in Svalbard, Greenland, Norway and Russia.
How hard is it to see a narwhal?
Watching narwhals is almost impossible for a regular tourist, as they are the whales with the northernmost habitat. They can be found in the whole northern Arctic Sea, but only near the pack ice line.
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